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  • Brin Beyer posted an update 1 month, 3 weeks ago

    Zinc contributes with the structure and function of more than 2500 enzyme systems involved in metabolism (Andreini et al., 2009; Cousins and King, 2004). Zinc activates the enzyme superoxide dismutase, which plays a crucial role in stabilizing cell membranes against reactive oxygen species (ROS) (Bonaventura et al., 2015; Haase and Rink, 2014). Zinc is involved in DNA replication through the actions of ribonucleotide reductase, and is necessary for lymphocytes proliferation and differentiation. Zinc’s major roles in the immune response involve signaling and adhesion of neutrophils and macrophages (Bonaventura et al., 2015), production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by monocytes (Rink and Kirchner, 2000), regulation of IL-2 secretion, signal transduction for T cell activation, clonal expansion, differentiation and TH Sunitinib Malate manufacturer polarization (Haase and Rink, 2014), B-cell function, and antibody production (Pinna et al., 2002; Tomlinson et al., 2008).Copper is important in the mitochondrial metabolic cascades for energy production to supply different organs, including those of the immune system (Failla, 2003). Copper also plays a role in superoxide dismutase activity and neutralization of ROS (Maggini et al., 2007), and contributes to the process of phagocyte killing (Linder, 1991). Ceruloplasmin is a copper-containing enzyme whose production increases dramatically during inflammation in response to the necessity of scavenging oxygen radicals released by immune cells (Percival, 1998). In rodents, copper deficiency is associated with decreased IL-2 production, lymphocyte proliferation and T cells counts (Bala and Failla, 1993; Bonham et al., 2002; Klotz et al., 2003; Linder and Hazegh-Azam, 1996; Minatel and Carfagnini, 2000; O\’Dell, 1993; Pan and Loo, 2000; Percival, 1998). Similarly, studies in cattle fed a copper-deficient diet showed a significant reduction in B-lymphocytes and impaired neutrophil activity (Cerone et al., 1998).Selenium appears to be very important to the migration of neutrophils into tissues and subsequent inflammation (Maddox et al., 1999). Selenium is a component of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase that inactivates ROS production and prevents released ROS from causing cellular damage (Maddox et al., 1999; Neve, 1991). Selenium deficiencies have been associated with depressed neutrophil migration and killing ability, and reduced B-cell response and antibody production. Moreover, Se supplementation enhanced both humoral and cell-mediated and immune responses (Maggini et al., 2007). The level of Se in tissues and blood affected the total IgM levels and BHV1-specific antibody titers after challenge (Reffett et al., 1988). Evidence that Mn plays a role in the immune system is limited. However, Mn has an essential function in removing ROS produced by active phagocytic cells (Tomlinson et al., 2008).The benefits of administering injectable trace minerals (ITM) on animal health and performance have been previously assessed in dairy (Harrison et al., 1984; Machado et al., 2013), and beef cattle (Arthington et al., 2014; Berry et al., 2000; Genther, and Hansen, 2014; Richeson and Kegley, 2011). However, only a few studies have evaluated the effects of ITM on the immune function of cattle (Arthington and Havenga, 2012; Chirase et al., 1994; Clark et al., 2006; Droke and Loerch, 1989). Arthington and Havenga (2012) assessed the effect of administration of ITM on the humoral immune response after BRD specific MLV vaccination in cattle. That study demonstrated that the ITM given concurrently with viral vaccination enhanced the production of neutralizing antibodies to BHV1 in beef calves. Additionally, recent studies have shown that treatment with ITM concomitantly with MLV vaccination induced a faster BVDV-specific antibody response in newly received, highly stressed calves (Roberts et al., 2015).A growing body of evidence suggests that both humoral and CMI responses are critical in protection against viral agents involved in BRD (Collen and Morrison, 2000; Howard 1990; Nobiron et al., 2003). A more complete evaluation of the immune responses induced by MLV vaccination requires the use of methods to assess both humoral (antibody response) and cellular effector mechanisms (recall antigen induced proliferation and induction of IFN-γ as the core Th1 cytokine). We hypothesized that administration of ITM improves both humoral and CMI responses to vaccine antigens in dairy calves receiving a modified-live viral (MLV) vaccine containing BVDV1 and 2, BHV1, PI3V and BRSV. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an injectable trace mineral (ITM) supplement containing Zn, Mn, Se, and Cu on the humoral and cell mediated immune (CMI) responses to individual vaccine antigens in dairy calves receiving a MLV vaccine containing BVDV1 and 2, BHV1, PI3V and BRSV.

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